Asked by: Raul Manukyan
medical health menopause

How do you administer phenytoin IV?

Last Updated: 22nd June, 2020

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Phenytoin IV administration
  1. Give phenytoin over 30-40 minutes (rate <50mg/minute).
  2. Ideally, administer undiluted via a syringe pump through a large gauge needle or IV catheter into a large forearm vein.

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Also know, can phenytoin be given IV push?

When treatment with oral phenytoin is not possible, IV DILANTIN can be substituted for oral phenytoin at the same total daily dose. The rate of administration for IV DILANTIN should be no greater than 50 mg per minute in adults and 1 to 3 mg/kg/min (or 50 mg per minute, whichever is slower) in pediatric patients.

Similarly, can phenytoin be given IM? When given by intramuscular injection, phenytoin precipitates out at the injection site and is absorbed slowly and erratically. If phenytoin is administered by intramuscular injection to patients unable to take the drug orally, the dose should be increased by 50% over the previously established oral dose.

Similarly, how do you dilute IV phenytoin?

For administration by intravenous infusion phenytoin injection should be diluted in 50 - 100 ml of normal saline, and the final concentration of phenytoin in the solution should not exceed 10 mg/ml, the infusion mixture should not be refrigerated.

What IV fluid is compatible with phenytoin?

It is concluded that 0.9% sodium chloride and lactated Ringer's injections are suitable diluents for the intravenous administration of phenytoin. Factors other than pH and cosolvent concentration may affect phenytoin stability in dextrose solutions.

Related Question Answers

Inoa Notzel

Professional

Why are IV filters used?

Air eliminating filters are used in infusion sets for the dual purpose of filtering particulates and eliminating bubbles. Filters are comprised of a housing with a vented side, separated from the patient side by a 0.2 or 1.2 micron filter membrane.

Escolastico Renkens

Professional

Why does IV phenytoin need a filter?

A filter of 0.2 micron must be used then to prevent precipitates that may form, from being injected into the blood circulation. Make sure the infusion is safe and provide an adequate treatment. Phenytoin Sodium must be administered by intermittent infusion in mini bag or piggyback, and on volumetric pump.

Magela Coors

Professional

Is phenytoin a benzodiazepine?

Phenytoin. Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication. It is useful for the prevention of tonic-clonic seizures and focal seizures, but not absence seizures. The intravenous form is used for status epilepticus that does not improve with benzodiazepines.

Janene Lahuerta

Explainer

What is the difference between phenytoin and phenytoin sodium?

Phenytoin sodium is an antiepileptic drug. Phenytoin sodium is related to the barbiturates in chemical structure, but has a five-membered ring.

Rosia Eulenberger

Explainer

Is phenytoin a controlled substance?

Dilantin is not a major drug of abuse; its use does not produce significant euphoria even though it may be used to control certain types of pain; and the drug is not considered to be a controlled substance by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, although its use does require a prescription.

Caryl Kermarrec

Explainer

How does phenytoin work?

Phenytoin is an anti-epileptic drug, also called an anticonvulsant. Phenytoin works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Phenytoin is used to control seizures. It does not treat all types of seizures, and your doctor will determine if it is the right medicine for you.

Rafal Glaziev

Pundit

What is phenytoin toxicity?

What is Dilantin toxicity? Dilantin, or phenytoin, toxicity happens when you have high levels of Dilantin in your body that become harmful. Dilantin is a medicine that is used to prevent and treat seizures. Dilantin toxicity can lead to a coma.

Yeshika Brandan

Pundit

Can phenytoin get you high?

Like many prescription drugs, Dilantin abuse can occur for both patients and non-patients. In most cases of abuse, the user is trying to achieve a Dilantin high. Although Dilantin is not a major drug of abuse, Dilantin toxicity can occur and can lead to death.

Perry Gashibayazov

Pundit

Which medication can decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin?

Drugs that may decrease phenytoin levels and reduce effectiveness include carbamazepine, chronic alcohol abuse, reserpine, and sucralfate (Carafate).

Salema Batool

Pundit

What happens if phenytoin is low?

Phenytoin blood testing is ordered because phenytoin blood levels must be maintained within a narrow therapeutic range. If levels are too low, the affected person may experience seizures; if they are too high, the person may experience symptoms associated with phenytoin toxicity.

Codou Pfeiffer

Pundit

When should phenytoin levels be checked?

After a patient has received a loading dose of intravenous phenytoin, levels can be checked one hour after the dose. If loading is achieved by oral dosing, phenytoin levels can be checked 24 hours after the last dose10.

Trancito Scheunstuhl

Teacher

What drugs interact with phenytoin?

View interaction reports for phenytoin and the medicines listed below.
  • Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin)
  • Advair Diskus (fluticasone / salmeterol)
  • Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin)
  • carbamazepine.
  • Combivent (albuterol / ipratropium)
  • Coumadin (warfarin)
  • Dextrose (glucose)
  • diazepam.

Ibrain Bacquet

Teacher

What is a normal phenytoin level?

Although the reference range is between 10 and 20 µg/mL, about half of patients' seizures are controlled at values lower and higher than the therapeutic range. Some adverse effects of phenytoin are related to specific serum levels. Nystagmus is frequently observed at levels greater than 20 µg/mL.

Eldy Gorgen

Teacher

How do you adjust phenytoin?

A rough guide to making an adjustment to the daily dose that should increase a serum level without leading to supratherapeutic / toxic levels is: If the phenytoin concentration is < 7 mcg/mL, the dose may be increased by 100 mg/day. If the phenytoin concentration is 7-12 mcg/mL, the dose may be increased by 50 mg/day.

Yvone Ortner

Teacher

Is Dilantin and Phenytoin the same?

Dilantin, made by Parke-Davis, is the brand name for phenytoin (FEN-ih-toyn). For more than 50 years, it's helped people with epilepsy keep their seizures under control. The small differences between Dilantin and generic phenytoin can have big clinical effects.

Faruk Terlisten

Reviewer

What class of drug is phenytoin?

antiepileptic drugs

Anil Yigit

Reviewer

What is the antidote for Dilantin?

There is no antidote, and there is no evidence that any method of gastrointestinal decontamination or enhanced elimination improves outcome. Activated charcoal should be considered if the patient presents early; however, the role of multiple-dose activated charcoal is controversial.

Andriu Martinovsky

Reviewer

How do you give an Eptoin injection?

Phenytoin IV administration
Ideally, administer undiluted via a syringe pump through a large gauge needle or IV catheter into a large forearm vein. If dilution is essential, mix with 100–250ml sodium chloride 0.9% to a final concentration of <10mg/ml, and administer by infusion pump.

Tyree Freudenstein

Reviewer

How is phenytoin metabolized?

Phenytoin is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes primarily to 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl-),5-phenylhydantoin (HPPH), which may be further metabolized to a catechol that spontaneously oxidizes to semiquinone and quinone species that covalently modify proteins.