Asked by: Goreti Hollinderbaumer
science chemistry

How does Calvin cycle produce glucose?

Last Updated: 2nd February, 2020

The reactions of the Calvin cycle add carbon (from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) to a simple five-carbon molecule called RuBP. These reactions use chemical energy from NADPH and ATP that were produced in the light reactions. The final product of the Calvin cycle is glucose.

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In this manner, how many turns of the Calvin cycle are required to make a glucose?

6 turns

Secondly, where does the Calvin cycle RuBP come from? In the Calvin cycle, RuBP is a product of the phosphorylation of ribulose-5-phosphate by ATP.

Additionally, does Calvin cycle produce water?

Water is the source of the oxygen released in green plant photosynthesis (not CO) In the reduction of CO, six carbon-carbon and six carbon-hydrogen bonds are 'made' (thus accounting for the requirement of 12 reducing equivalents). The reduction of 6 CO produces six water molecules as a by-product.

Which molecule is the source of basic material used for the production of glucose in the Calvin cycle?

Carbon dioxide

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What is the equation for the Calvin cycle?

The overall chemical equation for the Calvin cycle is: 3 CO2 + 6 NADPH + 5 H2O + 9 ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2 H+ + 6 NADP+ + 9 ADP + 8 Pi (Pi = inorganic phosphate)

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What is the purpose of the Calvin cycle?

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In the most general sense, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to make organic products that plants need using the products from the light reactions of photosynthesis (ATP and NADPH).

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What is the main product of the Calvin cycle?

The reactions of the Calvin cycle add carbon (from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere) to a simple five-carbon molecule called RuBP. These reactions use chemical energy from NADPH and ATP that were produced in the light reactions. The final product of the Calvin cycle is glucose.

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Why is Calvin cycle 6 times?

Because the carbohydrate molecule has six carbon atoms, it takes six turns of the Calvin cycle to make one carbohydrate molecule (one for each carbon dioxide molecule fixed). The remaining G3P molecules regenerate RuBP, which enables the system to prepare for the carbon-fixation step.

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Does dark reaction occur at night?

It is a process in which light energy converts into chemical energy. Dark reaction of photosynthesis does not require light. Both the light and dark reactions occur in the day. As dark reaction does not require light it doesn't meant it occurs at night it only requires products of light reaction like ATP and NADPH.

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What is a stack of thylakoids called?

A granum (plural grana) is a stack of thylakoid discs. Chloroplasts can have from 10 to 100 grana. Grana are connected by stroma thylakoids, also called intergranal thylakoids or lamellae.

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Where does the Calvin cycle occur mastering biology?

The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma.

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How is ATP used in the Calvin cycle?

The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar: ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions are used in the Calvin cycle to reduce carbon dioxide to sugar. ATP is the energy source, while NADPH is the reducing agent that adds high-energy electrons to form sugar.

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Why does the Calvin cycle need water?

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At a fundamental level, water provides electrons to replace those removed from chlorophyll in photosystem II. Also, water produces oxygen as well as reduces NADP to NADPH (required in the Calvin cycle) by liberating H+ ions.

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What is dark reaction in biology?

dark reaction. Any of the chemical reactions that take place during the second stage of photosynthesis and do not require light. During the dark reactions, energy released from ATP (created by the light reactions) drives the fixation of carbon from carbon dioxide in organic molecules.

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What is Calvin cycle in biology?

The Calvin cycle (also known as the Benson-Calvin cycle) is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.

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What happens to oxygen in Calvin cycle?

The Calvin Cycle converts three water and three carbon dioxide molecules into one molecule of glyceraldehyde. The six left over oxygen atoms are released into the atmosphere where they are available for use in respiration. Notice that in both CO2 and H2O, all of the bonds are either C-O or H-O.

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What are the products of dark reactions?

The dark reaction occurs outside of the thylakoids. In this reaction, the energy from ATP and NADPH are used to fix carbon dioxide (CO2). The products of this reaction are sugar molecules and other organic molecules necessary for cell function and metabolism.

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What is Rubisco in the Calvin cycle?

The enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, most commonly known by the shorter name RuBisCO or just rubisco is used in the Calvin cycle to catalyze the first major step of carbon fixation.

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Where is water formed in photosynthesis?

This oxygen is released into the atmosphere through the plant's leaves. Water is also a product of photosynthesis. This water is produced from the oxygen atoms in the carbon dioxide molecules.

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What is the full meaning of RuBisCO?

RuBisCO. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviation RuBisCO, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

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What is required for the Calvin cycle?

Thus, the Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert three molecules of CO2 to one molecule of a 3-carbon sugar. The main role of the light reactions is to restock the stroma with the ATP and NADPH required for the Calvin cycle.