Asked by: Domingo Epperlein
science genetics

How many arms does a chromosome have?

Last Updated: 10th May, 2020

28
2 arms

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Hereof, how many DNA molecules are in a chromosome?

two DNA molecules

Similarly, what is a chromosome arm? The arm of the chromosome. Each chromosome is divided into two sections (arms) based on the location of a narrowing (constriction) called the centromere. By convention, the shorter arm is called p, and the longer arm is called q. The chromosome arm is the second part of the gene's address.

Similarly, it is asked, how many chromosome are there?

46

What do each of the 22 chromosomes represent?

Chromosome Map. Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary widely in size and shape. The 23rd pair of chromosomes are two special chromosomes, X and Y, that determine our sex. Females have a pair of X chromosomes (46, XX), whereas males have one X and one Y chromosomes (46, XY).

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Is a chromosome a single DNA molecule?

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What is DNA made of?

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What holds the chromatids together?

centromeres. … that holds together the two chromatids (the daughter strands of a replicated chromosome). The centromere is the point of attachment of the kinetochore, a structure to which the microtubules of the mitotic spindle become anchored.

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How long is DNA in a chromosome?

"On the average, a single human chromosome consists of DNA molecule that is about 2 inches long." The chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell contain all the information a cell needs to carry on its life processes. They are made up of a complex chemical (a nucleic acid) called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA for short.

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Is a single chromatid a chromosome?

The chromosome consists of a single chromatid and is decondensed (long and string-like). The DNA is copied. The chromosome now consists of two sister chromatids, which are connected by proteins called cohesins. The chromosome condenses.

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How many DNA does a human have?

In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. The Human Genome Project estimated that humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent.

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How many genes are in a single chromosome?

Somatic cells usually have one copy of chromosomes 1-22 from each parent, plus an X chromosome from the mother, and either an X or Y chromosome from the father, for a total of 46. There are an estimated 20,000-25,000 human protein-coding genes.

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What is the gender of YY?

Instead of having one X and one Y sex chromosome, those with XYY syndrome have one X and two Y chromosomes. Sex chromosome abnormalities like XYY syndrome are some of the most common chromosome abnormalities. XYY syndrome (also called Jacob's syndrome, XYY karyotype, or YY syndrome) affects only males.

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What happens if you have 1 less chromosome?

Having a single copy of a particular chromosome, rather than the usual pair, is called "monosomy." Turner syndrome is also known as "monosomy X." The missing sex chromosome error can occur in either the mother's egg cell or the father's sperm cell; however, it is usually an error that occurred when the father's sperm

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What is Xyy?

XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome. Symptoms are usually few. They may include being taller than average, acne, and an increased risk of learning problems. There are 47 chromosomes, instead of the usual 46, giving a 47,XYY karyotype.

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What is Edward's syndrome?

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of a third copy of all or part of chromosome 18. Many parts of the body are affected. Babies are often born small and have heart defects.

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What happens if you have 2 extra chromosomes?

Cells with two additional sets of chromosomes, for a total of 92 chromosomes, are called tetraploid. A condition in which every cell in the body has an extra set of chromosomes is not compatible with life. In some cases, a change in the number of chromosomes occurs only in certain cells.

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Do all humans have the same genome?

The human genome is mostly the same in all people. But there are variations across the genome. This genetic variation accounts for about 0.001 percent of each person's DNA and contributes to differences in appearance and health. People who are closely related have more similar DNA.

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What happens if you have 45 chromosomes?

Turner syndrome is due to a chromosomal abnormality in which all or part of one of the X chromosomes is missing or altered. While most people have 46 chromosomes, people with TS usually have 45. The chromosomal abnormality may be present in just some cells in which case it is known as TS with mosaicism.

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What happens if you have 48 chromosomes?

XXYY syndrome is a sex chromosome anomaly in which males have an extra X and Y chromosome. Males with XXYY syndrome have 48 chromosomes instead of the typical 46. This is why XXYY syndrome is sometimes written as 48,XXYY syndrome or 48,XXYY. It affects an estimated one in every 18,000–40,000 male births.

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What two organelles can DNA be found in?

It is now known that small circular chromosomes, called extranuclear, or cytoplasmic, DNA, are located in two types of organelles found in the cytoplasm of the cell. These organelles are the mitochondria in animal and plant cells and the chloroplasts in plant cells.

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What does Q mean in chromosome?

The chromosome number. p. The position is on the chromosome's short arm (a common apocryphal explanation is that the p stands for petit in French); q indicates the long arm (chosen as next letter in alphabet after p; alternatively it is sometimes said that q stands for queue, meaning "tail" in French).

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Where is chromosome located?

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.