Asked by: Nareme Heukeshoven
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What happens to glucose under anaerobic conditions?

Last Updated: 15th March, 2020

It can occur aerobically or anaerobically depending on whether oxygen is available. This is clinically significant because oxidation of glucose under aerobic conditions results in 32 mol of ATP per mol of glucose. However, under anaerobic conditions, only 2 mol of ATP can be produced.

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Herein, what happens to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions?

Anaerobic conditions in yeast convert pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethanol. This occurs with the help of the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase which removes a carbon dioxide molecule from the pyruvate to yield an acetaldehyde.

Subsequently, question is, what occurs under anaerobic conditions? Under anaerobic conditions, the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid can be routed by the organism into one of three pathways: lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, or cellular (anaerobic) respiration. Humans cannot ferment alcohol in their own bodies, we lack the genetic information to do so.

Furthermore, what are the products of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions?

Glycolysis is used by all cells in the body for energy generation. The final product of glycolysis is pyruvate in aerobic settings and lactate in anaerobic conditions. Pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle for further energy production.

Why does anaerobic glycolysis occur?

Anaerobic glycolysis serves as a means of energy production in cells that cannot produce adequate energy through oxidative phosphorylation. In poorly oxygenated tissue, glycolysis produces 2 ATP by shunting pyruvate away from mitochondria and through the lactate dehydrogenase reaction.

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What are the two types of glycolysis?

There are two types of glycolysis. Aerobic Glycolysis: It occurs when oxygen is plentiful. Anaerobic Glycolysis: It occurs when oxygen is scarce. Final product is lactate along with the production of two ATP molecules.

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Can glycolysis occur under anaerobic conditions?

Glycolysis is the major pathway of glucose metabolism and occurs in the cytosol of all cells. This is clinically significant because oxidation of glucose under aerobic conditions results in 32 mol of ATP per mol of glucose. However, under anaerobic conditions, only 2 mol of ATP can be produced.

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Where does anaerobic respiration occur?

Anaerobic respiration (both glycolysis and fermentation) takes place in the fluid portion of the cytoplasm whereas the bulk of the energy yield of aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria.

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How is lactic acid produced in anaerobic respiration?

Anaerobic respiration in muscles
There is a build-up of lactic acid in the muscles during vigorous exercise. The lactic acid needs to be oxidised to carbon dioxide and water later. This causes an oxygen debt - known as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) - that needs to be 'repaid' after the exercise stops.

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What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis?

Difference Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Glycolysis. Glycolysis via aerobic glycolysis occurs when oxygen and hydrogen atoms bond together to break down glucose, and facilitate an exchange of energy. Anaerobic glycolysis, on the other hand, occurs when glucose is broken down without the presence of oxygen.

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What happens to lactate in anaerobic respiration?

The lactate produced as a result of anaerobic respiration must be removed as it is acidic. The lactate is transported to metabolically active cells, such as the heart and brain. Here it is converted back to pyruvate by the above reaction. The pyruvate is then utilised in the Krebs cycle.

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Where does anaerobic glycolysis occur in the cell?

Anaerobic reactions occur in the cytoplasm of the cell and aerobic reactions occur in the mitochondria of the cells. Notice in the picture below that glycolysis is happening in the cytoplasm and everything else is occurring inside the mitochondria, which require oxygen.

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How long does it take for the anaerobic system to recover?

Anaerobic Glycolysis
This is the predominant energy system for efforts lasting 5-30 seconds and repeated efforts with a short recovery time. This source of energy breaks down carbohydrate stored in your muscle (glycogen) to pyruvate and then to lactate (or lactic acid).

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What is the process of anaerobic glycolysis?

Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to lactate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. When sufficient oxygen is not present in the muscle cells for further oxidation of pyruvate and NADH produced in glycolysis, NAD+ is regenerated from NADH by reduction of pyruvate to lactate.

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What are the 10 steps of glycolysis?

Glycolysis Explained in 10 Easy Steps
  • Step 1: Hexokinase.
  • Step 2: Phosphoglucose Isomerase.
  • Step 3: Phosphofructokinase.
  • Step 4: Aldolase.
  • Step 5: Triosephosphate isomerase.
  • Step 6: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.
  • Step 7: Phosphoglycerate Kinase.
  • Step 8: Phosphoglycerate Mutase.

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What are the functions of glycolysis?

Figure: Cellular Respiration: Glycolysis is the first pathway of cellular respiration that oxidizes glucose molecules. It is followed by the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP. Glycolysis is the first of the main metabolic pathways of cellular respiration to produce energy in the form of ATP.

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What are the end products of glycolysis?

Glycolysis involves the breaking down of a sugar (generally glucose, although fructose and other sugars may be used) into more manageable compounds in order to produce energy. The net end products of glycolysis are two Pyruvate, two NADH, and two ATP (A special note on the "two" ATP later).

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What is the end product of anaerobic respiration?

The end products of anaerobic respiration are Lactic acid or ethanol and ATP molecules. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen and is seen in lower animals. During the process of Anaerobic Respiration in prokaryotes, there is a breakdown of glucose to produce energy for cellular activities.

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What are the cofactors of glycolysis?

For example, the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase at the junction of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle requires five organic cofactors and one metal ion: loosely bound thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), covalently bound lipoamide and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), cosubstrates nicotinamide adenine

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What triggers glycolysis?

Thus the phosphorylation of phosphofructokinase inhibits glycolysis, whereas its dephosphorylation through the action of insulin stimulates glycolysis. In addition hexokinase and glucokinase act independently of the hormonal effects as controls at the entry points of glucose into the cells of different tissues.

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What are the two types of fermentation?

The two most common types of fermentation are (1) alcoholic fermentation and (2) lactic acid fermentation. (1) Alcoholic fermentation : the type of fermentation in which ethyl alcohol is the main end product . This is very common in yeast (unicellular fungus) and also seen in some bacteria.

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How is ATP used in fermentation?

The net energy gain in fermentation is 2 ATP molecules/glucose molecule. In both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation, all the NADH produced in glycolysis is consumed in fermentation, so there is no net NADH production, and no NADH to enter the ETC and form more ATP.