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family and relationships pregnancy

What is a normal CTG trace?

Last Updated: 14th March, 2020

Normal antenatal CTG trace: The normal antenatal CTG is associated with a low probability of fetal compromise and has the following features: Baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) is between 110-160 bpm • Variability of FHR is between 5-25 bpm • Decelerations are absent or early • Accelerations x2 within 20 minutes.

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In this regard, what is a CTG trace?

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording the fetal heartbeat and the uterine contractions during pregnancy. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor (EFM).

Secondly, how long does CTG monitoring take? 5.2 Duration and frequency of CTG monitoring The maximum time for an Oxford CTG is 60 minutes. Monitoring frequency depends on the individual clinical risk confirmed by cardiotocography. It can range from a single reading done on an outpatient basis to several readings per day to continuous monitoring.

Correspondingly, what is an abnormal CTG?

Cardiotocography (CTG) is used during pregnancy to monitor the fetal heart and contractions of the uterus. An abnormal CTG indicates the need for more invasive investigations and potentially emergency caesarian section.

How do you read a CTG contraction?

The red indicator is showing the mother's contractions. The fetal heart rate is usually on the top of a computer screen, with the contractions on the bottom. Graph paper that is printed has the fetal heart rate to the left and the contractions to the right.

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What number is a strong contraction?

When the cervix dilates from 4 to 8 centimeters (called the Active Phase), contractions get stronger and are about 3 minutes apart, lasting about 45 seconds.

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Is CTG safe for baby?

Are there any side-effects or complications from cardiotocography? CTG does not use any radiation; it is considered a very safe test. Depending on the machine used, it may prevent you from being able to move around freely during labour.

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What is normal fetal heart rate?

A normal fetal heart rate (FHR) usually ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm) in the in utero period. It is measurable sonographically from around 6 weeks and the normal range varies during gestation, increasing to around 170 bpm at 10 weeks and decreasing from then to around 130 bpm at term.

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How do you count contractions?

When timing contractions, start counting from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next. The easiest way to time contractions is to write down on paper the time each contraction starts and its duration, or count the seconds the actual contraction lasts, as shown in the example below.

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What is purpose of contraction?

During labor, contractions accomplish two things: (1) they cause the cervix to thin and dilate (open); and (2) they help the baby to descend into the birth canal. Uterine contractions also occur during the monthly menstrual cycle and are recognized as menstrual cramps.

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Do Braxton Hicks show up on monitor?

Fake Contractions (Braxton Hicks)
They look real on a uterine contraction monitor. They feel real. But they're not called real. The difference being that they are irregular contractions, and they don't cause your body to go into labor or your cervix to dilate.

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What is fetal distress?

Fetal distress is an emergency pregnancy, labor, and delivery complication in which a baby experiences oxygen deprivation (birth asphyxia). This may include changes in the baby's heart rate (as seen on a fetal heart rate monitor), decreased fetal movement, and meconium in the amniotic fluid, among other signs.

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Are decelerations normal?

Decelerations are temporary drops in the fetal heart rate. There are three basic types of decelerations: early decelerations, late decelerations, and variable decelerations. Early decelerations are generally normal and not concerning. Late and variable decelerations can sometimes be a sign the baby isn't doing well.

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What does a CTG scan show?

This device records the heart rate. CTG uses sound waves called ultrasound to detect the baby's heart rate. Ultrasound is a high-frequency sound that you cannot hear but it can be sent out (emitted) and detected by special machines. Ultrasound travels freely through fluid and soft tissues.

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What do Toco numbers mean on Fetal monitor?

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording (-graphy) the fetal heartbeat (cardio-) and the uterine contractions (-toco-) during pregnancy, typically in the third trimester. The machine used to perform the monitoring is called a cardiotocograph, more commonly known as an electronic fetal monitor.

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What is a low heart rate for a fetus?

Fetal bradycardia. Fetal bradycardia refers to an abnormally low fetal heart rate, a potentially ominous finding. A sustained first trimester heart rate below 100 beats per minute (bpm) is generally considered bradycardic.

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What causes sinusoidal fetal heart rate?

FETAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SHR PATTERN: SHR pattern has been reported with the following fetal conditions: (1) severe fetal anemia of several etiologies; (2) effects of drugs, particularly narcotics; (3) fetal asphyxia/hypoxia; (4) fetal infection; (5) fetal cardiac anomalies; (6) fetal sleep cycles; and (7)

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What is variability in fetal heart rate?

Baseline FHR Variability
Baseline variability is defined as fluctuations in the fetal heart rate of more than 2 cycles per minute. No distinction is made between short-term variability (or beat-to-beat variability or R-R wave period differences in the electrocardiogram) and long-term variability.

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What does Toco stand for?

Objective. Tocodynamometry (Toco—strain gauge technology) provides contraction frequency and approximate duration of labor contractions, but suffers frequent signal dropout necessitating re-positioning by a nurse, and may fail in obese patients.

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How do you calculate fetal heart rate?

Instantaneous fetal heart rate (FHRi) values (expressed in beats per minute - bpm) are calculated for each cardiac cycle according to formula: FHRi [bpm] = 60000/Ti [ms]. The most often used noninvasive acquisition method is the Doppler ultrasound (US) technique [1,2].

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What causes high fetal heart rate?

A very fast heart rate may be caused by abnormal firing of the nerves that are responsible for the heartbeat. As a result, the fetus can go into heart failure. The most common form of this condition is called supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), in which the heart rate can be faster than 200 beats per minute.

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When can CTG be used?

CTG should only be performed in the antenatal period for fetal surveillance as per clinical indications. until the woman is in labour. Prior to that gestation, auscultation with Pinards Stethoscope or Sonic aid is appropriate. 2.4.

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Why is Cardiotocogram done?

The use of cardiotocography (CTG) is widely used antenatally and in labour to detect fetal hypoxia. The fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern can be analyzed visually by describing the baseline, variability and cyclical changes. In fetal hypoxia, the fetal heart rate increases with a reduction in the baseline variation.

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What do contractions feel like?

Some say labor contractions feel a bit like menstrual cramps at first, but then they intensify. Then, contractions feel like a dull ache paired with pelvic pressure. The discomfort moves from the top of the belly to the bottom—think of it as pushing your baby down and out.