Asked by: Zaharie Parker
medical health pharmaceutical drugs

What is hepatic clearance?

Last Updated: 12th January, 2020

Hepatic drug clearance can be defined as the volume of blood perfusing the liver that is cleared of the drug per unit of time. Intrinsic clearance is the ability of the liver to remove drug in the absence of flow limitations and binding to cells or proteins in the blood.

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Keeping this in consideration, how is hepatic clearance calculated?

Hepatic clearance (CLH) may be defined as the volume of blood perfusing the liver that is cleared of drug per unit time. Usually, hepatic clearance is equated with non-renal clearance and is calculated as total body clearance (CLE) minus renal clearance (CLR).

Also, what factors affect drug clearance? Factors affecting renal excretion of drugs include: kidney function, protein binding, urine pH and urine flow.

In this regard, what is drug clearance?

Drug clearance is concerned with the rate at which the active drug is removed from the body; and for most drugs at steady state, clearance remains constant so that drug input equals drug output. Clearance is defined as the rate of drug elimination divided by the plasma concentration of the drug.

How do you calculate extraction ratio?

EXTRACTION RATIO. Definition : "Rate of plasma drug removal by an organ of elimination, divided by the rate at which it is presented to this organ."

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What is meant by renal clearance?

renal clearance. renal clearance. noun. The volume of plasma completely cleared of a specific compound per unit time and measured as a test of kidney function.

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What are high extraction drugs?

It is defined as the fraction of drug removed from blood by the liver, and depends on 3 factors— the hepatic blood flow, the uptake into the hepatocytes, and the enzyme metabolic capacity. Examples of drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio include propranolol, opiates, and lignocaine.

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What does high extraction ratio mean?

These compounds have a high hepatic extraction ratio, defined as the rate of drug removal from the bloodstream by the liver relative to the rate of drug presentation to the liver (via the circulation). For those compounds with a high extraction ratio, clearance becomes limited by hepatic blood flow.

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How do you get intrinsic clearance?

Prediction of intrinsic hepatic clearance
  1. (pred CLint,AO) = A HrRel + B Steric + C. Equation 1.
  2. (pred CLint,AO,H) = - 0.174 HrRel - 0.114 Steric + 4.14, r2 = 0.92, n = 7.
  3. (CLint,AO,HP) = - 0.285 HrRel - 0.081 Steric + 4.74, r2 = 0.76, n = 7.
  4. L(pred CLint,AO,H) = - 0.344 HrRel - 0.212 Steric + 5.83, r2 = 0.87, n = 6.

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What is tau pharmacokinetics?

Reaching Steady State
At steady state, the amount of drug administered on each dosing occasion is matched by an equivalent amount of drug leaving the body between each dose (rate in = rate out). This repeated time period of dosing is often called the dosing interval and is abbreviated using the Greek letter tau (τ).

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Why is clearance important?

Clearance can be used to calculate the rate at which drug must be added to the circulation to maintain the steady state plasma concentration or, in other words, the dosage rate. If you know what is going out, you can administer the same amount going in, and theoretically the plasma concentration should remain constant.

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What is blood clearance?

When referring to the function of the kidney, clearance is considered to be the amount of liquid filtered out of the blood that gets processed by the kidneys or the amount of blood cleaned per time because it has the units of a volumetric flow rate [ volume / time ].

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What is oral clearance?

Rated: Zoegardner-ga, Systemic clearance refers to the clearance rate of a drug after it's been administered intravenously. Oral clearance, in contrast, refers to the rate of clearance of drugs administered orally.

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What is difference between elimination and excretion?

Elimination is a process by which waste and indigestible material are removed from the body. Excretion can be considered as a method of elimination, but it involves only in the removal of metabolic waste. What is Excretion? Excretion is the process by which wastes produced in the body are removed from the body.

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What is total body clearance?

The total body clearance or total plasma (blood) clearance (CL) is commonly defined as the. volume of plasma (blood) completely cleared of drug per unit time (1, 2).

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Why is drug elimination important?

Drug excretion is the process of eliminating a drug from the body. The majority of drugs are eliminated by pathways that involve the kidneys (see the record on Renal Drug Excretion) or the liver. Renal excretion plays an important role in eliminating unchanged drugs or their metabolites into urine.

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What is the process whereby a drug is transformed by the liver to another chemical?

Introduction to Biotransformation. Biotransformation is the process by which a substance changes from one chemical to another (transformed) by a chemical reaction within the body. Metabolism or metabolic transformations are terms frequently used for the biotransformation process.

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Which substance has the highest renal clearance?

Organic acids such as para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) have the highest clearances of all substances because they are both filtered and secreted. Inulin has unique properties that make it the only substance whose clearance is exactly equal to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

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Is clearance a constant?

Clearance may be defined as the volume of fluid cleared of drug from the body per unit of time. In addition, for first-order elimination processes, clearance is a constant, whereas the rate of drug elimination is not constant.

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What drugs are eliminated by the kidneys?

drugs excreted by the kidney
  • antibiotics:
  • beta blockers.
  • diuretics.
  • lithium.
  • digoxin.
  • procainamide.
  • cimetidine.
  • ranitidine.

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What is unbound clearance?

Protein binding and drug clearance. The sensitivity of organ clearance of a drug to changes in binding within blood depends on its unbound clearance. If unbound clearance is low, relative to organ blood flow, the extraction ratio (and clearance) will always be low and dependent on plasma binding.

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What is first pass effect in pharmacology?

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug, specifically when administered orally, is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

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How do you calculate extraction yield of espresso?

Extraction yield % = Brewed Coffee[g] x TDS[%] /Coffee Grounds[g] E.g. (espresso) 36g brewed coffee x 10% TDS / 18g ground coffee = Extraction yield of 20% Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) TDS is expressed in parts per million (ppm).