Asked by: Angelia Wittkopp
science genetics

What is translocation syndrome?

Last Updated: 28th June, 2020

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Translocation Down syndrome is a type of Down syndrome that is caused when one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. In translocation Down syndrome, the extra 21 chromosome may be attached to the 14 chromosome, or to other chromosome numbers like 13, 15, or 22.

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Correspondingly, how do you know if you have translocation?

Tests for chromosome translocations Genetic testing is available to find out whether a person carries a translocation. A simple blood test is done, and cells from the blood are examined in a laboratory to look at the arrangement of the chromosomes. This is called a karyotype test.

Similarly, what is an example of translocation? The term translocation is used when the location of specific chromosome material changes. There are two main types of translocations: reciprocal and Robertsonian. This newly formed chromosome is called the translocation chromosome. The translocation in this example is between chromosomes 14 and 21.

Keeping this in consideration, what is the difference between trisomy 21 and translocation Down syndrome?

There are no big differences between the patients who have translocation Down syndrome compared with those who have 3 separate copies of chromosome 21. This is called trisomy 21. That parent will actually have 45 total chromosomes in each cell of the body, but the parent will be normal and healthy.

What does translocation cause?

Reciprocal translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by exchange of parts between non-homologous chromosomes. A gene fusion may be created when the translocation joins two otherwise-separated genes. It is detected on cytogenetics or a karyotype of affected cells.

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Nayab Chekonov

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What is Edward's syndrome?

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of a third copy of all or part of chromosome 18. Many parts of the body are affected. Babies are often born small and have heart defects.

Majida Ottel

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How does translocation lead to cancer?

Genetic alterations in DNA can lead to cancer when it is present in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes etc. Chromosomal translocations in certain cases can result either in the fusion of genes or in bringing genes close to enhancer or promoter elements, hence leading to their altered expression.

Hwa Hilbertz

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Can translocation cause Down syndrome?

Translocation trisomy 21.
This type of change causes a small number of Down syndrome cases. Sometimes, a parent who does not have Down syndrome may carry a translocation in chromosome 21 that can be passed on to children and cause Down syndrome.

Cherki Sadiq

Explainer

How does balanced translocation occur?

A balanced or chromosomal translocation is a condition in which part of a chromosome has broken off and reattached in another location. In other words, it means that sections of two chromosomes have switched places. In the case of the former, many people can have translocations without being aware of the condition.

Iratxe Mouzouri

Explainer

How is Trisomy produced?

Trisomy often occurs because of errors during meiosis, which is the process by which gametes, or eggs and sperm, are formed. This is called chromosome nondisjunction, and it can happen either in meiosis I or meiosis II. When chromosome nondisjunction occurs, the chromosomes don't separate normally.

Antonina Galdames

Explainer

Which parent carries the Down syndrome gene?

The genetic basis of Down syndrome
Half the chromosomes come from the egg (the mother) and half come from the sperm (the father). This XY chromosome pair includes the X chromosome from the egg and the Y chromosome from the sperm.

Gordiano Carramate

Pundit

How do you test for genetic translocation?

Tests for chromosome translocations
Genetic testing is available to find out whether a person carries a translocation. A simple blood test is done, and cells from the blood are examined in a laboratory to look at the arrangement of the chromosomes. This is called a karyotype test.

Ashley Martinson

Pundit

How common is translocation Down syndrome?

In translocation Down syndrome, the extra 21 chromosome may be attached to the #14 chromosome, or to other chromosome numbers like 13, 15, or 22. In some cases, two # 21 chromosomes can be attached to each other. Three to 4 percent of babies born with Down syndrome have translocation Down syndrome.

Aidan Aranda

Pundit

What celebrities have Down syndrome?

List of people with Down syndrome
  • American actor and singer Chris Burke.
  • British actor Tommy Jessop (right) with his brother William.
  • Spanish actor Pablo Pineda, the first European with Down syndrome to complete a university degree.
  • British actress Paula Sage receiving her BAFTA award with Brian Cox.

Abderraman Iovane

Pundit

Which type of Down syndrome is the most severe?

Trisomy 21
This is the most common form of Down syndrome.

Serezade Shomik

Pundit

What are the 3 types of Down syndrome?

There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 (nondisjunction), translocation and mosaicism.
  • Trisomy 21, the most common type of Down syndrome, occurs when there are three, rather than two, number 21 chromosomes present in every cell of the body.
  • Translocation accounts for 4% of all cases of Down syndrome.

Yongqing Haladjan

Teacher

What does it mean to have 3 21 chromosomes?

Most cases of Down syndrome result from trisomy 21, which means each cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two copies. A very small percentage of people with Down syndrome have an extra copy of chromosome 21 in only some of the body's cells.

Chie Sassone

Teacher

Can someone have partial Down syndrome?

When some or all of a person's cells have an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21, Down syndrome occurs.

Kawthar Portoles

Teacher

What is Trisomy Risk?

Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is the most commonly recognized genetic cause of mental retardation. The risk of trisomy 21 is directly related to maternal age. 1,2 Because of the morbidity associated with Down syndrome, screening and diagnostic testing for this condition are offered as optional components of prenatal care.

Victorina Hattangady

Teacher

How do you get Down syndrome?

Down syndrome is usually caused by an error in cell division called “nondisjunction.” Nondisjunction results in an embryo with three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. Prior to or at conception, a pair of 21st chromosomes in either the sperm or the egg fails to separate.

Eleonore Behrns

Reviewer

How do Isochromosomes form?

An isochromosome is created when the centromere is divided transversely, or perpendicular to the long axis of the chromosome. The division is usually not occurring in the centromere itself, but in an area surrounding the centromere, also known as a pericentric region.

Bassim Heinemanns

Reviewer

How is Down syndrome inherited?

Most cases of Down syndrome are not inherited, but occur as random events during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm). An error in cell division called nondisjunction results in reproductive cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes.

Gulfam Urain

Reviewer

Where does polyploidy occur?

Polyploidy can occur when an error during meiosis leads to the production of unreduced (i.e., diploid) gametes rather than haploid ones, as shown in Figure 6.1. If two diploid gametes fuse, an autotetraploid will be created whose nucleus contains four copies of each chromosome.

Monday Venghaus

Reviewer

How does translocation occur in phloem?

While movement of water and minerals through the xylem is driven by negative pressures (tension) most of the time, movement through the phloem is driven by positive hydrostatic pressures. This process is termed translocation, and is accomplished by a process called phloem loading and unloading.