Asked by: Herica Gilles
science genetics

Why do A and T and G and C pair in a DNA double helix?

Last Updated: 5th May, 2020

This means that each of the two strandsindouble-stranded DNA acts as a templatetoproduce two new strands. Replication relies oncomplementary basepairing, that is the principleexplained byChargaff's rules: adenine (A) always bonds with thymine(T)and cytosine (C) always bonds withguanine(G).

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In this regard, what does T pair with in DNA?

The rules of base pairing (ornucleotidepairing) are: A with T: the purine adenine(A) alwayspairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T) Cwith G: thepyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with thepurine guanine(G)

One may also ask, why do DNA strands run in opposite directions? DNA strands run parallel to each other buttheyhave opposite alignments. A single DNA strand hastwoends. DNA double helix is in oppositedirectionsbecause of the opposite orientation of thesugar molecule inthem. This antiparallel arrangement allows basepairs to complementone another.

Similarly, you may ask, what does it mean for a double helix of DNA to be antiparallel and complementary?

The structure of DNA is called adoublehelix, which looks like a twisted staircase. Due tothe basepairing, the DNA strands are complementary toeachother, run in opposite directions, and arecalledantiparallel strands.

Why do purines have to pair with a pyrimidine?

Answer and Explanation: Purines pairwithpyrimidines because they both contain nitrogenousbaseswhich means that both molecules havecomplementarystructures that make up

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What are the rules of base pairing in DNA and RNA?

The base pairing of guanine (G) and cytosine(C)is just the same in DNA and RNA. So in RNAtheimportant base pairs are: adenine (A) pairs with uracil(U);guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C).

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What is the base pairing rule of DNA to mRNA?

Chargaff's rule states that A only bonds withTand C only bonds with G in a DNA strand. This is namedafterthe scientist Erwin Chargaff, who discovered that in anyDNAmolecule, the percentage of guanine is alwaysapproximately equalto the percentage of cytosine with the same truefor adenine andthymine.

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What is the base pairing pattern of DNA?

In double stranded DNA, the guanine(G)base on one strand can form three H-bonds with acytosine(C) base on another strand (this is called a GCbasepair). The thymine (T) base on one strand canform twoH-bonds with an adenine (A) base on the other strand(thisis called an AT base pair).

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What does cytosine pair with in DNA?

Each base has a specific partner: guaninewithcytosine, adenine with thymine (in DNA) oradeninewith uracil (in RNA). The hydrogen bonds are weak,allowingDNA to 'unzip'.

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What is translation in DNA?

DNA translation is the term used to describetheprocess of protein synthesis by ribosomes in the cytoplasmorendoplasmic reticulum. tRNAs carry particular amino acids,whichare linked together by the ribosome. In this process, the mRNAisdecoded to produce a specific amino acid chain, known asapolypeptide.

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Why in DNA does T only pair with a?

It allows something called complementarybasepairing. You see, cytosine can form three hydrogenbondswith guanine, and adenine can form two hydrogen bonds withthymine.The structures complement each other, in a way, like a lockand akey. C will only bond with G and A will onlybondwith T in DNA.

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What does thymine pair with in RNA?

In DNA Adenine-Thymine andGuanine-Cytosinepair together due to the formation ofhydrogen bonds betweenthe two bases. In RNA the baseThymine is notpresent, instead the base Uracil is presentwhich has a verysimilar structure to Thymine.

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Which is an example of complementary base pairing in DNA?

The answer is C: Guanine pairing withcytosine.Explanation: DNA, the genetic material has fourtypes ofnitrogenous bases, they are Adenine, guanine,cytosine andthymine. Adenine pairs with thymine andcytosinepairs with guanine.

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What is the 5 to 3 direction?

5' - 3' direction refers totheorientation of nucleotides of a single strand of DNA or RNA.The5' and 3' specifically refer to the 5thand3rd carbon atoms in the deoxyribose/ribosesugarring.

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Why does DNA replication occur in the 5 to 3 direction?

DNA replication goes in the 5' to3'direction because DNA polymerase acts onthe3'-OH of the existing strand for addingfreenucleotides.

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What causes DNA to form a double helix?

As the new strands form, bases are pairedtogetheruntil two double-helix DNA molecules areformed from asingle double-helix DNA molecule. Inorder forDNA transcription to take place, the DNA doublehelixmust unwind and allow an enzyme called RNA polymerase totranscribethe DNA.

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Is DNA parallel or antiparallel?

Antiparallel (biochemistry) In biochemistry,twobiopolymers are antiparallel if they run paralleltoeach other but with opposite directionality (alignments).Anexample is the two complementary strands of a DNAdoublehelix, which run in opposite directions alongsideeachother.

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What are three parts of a nucleotide?

Both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid(RNA)are made up of nucleotides which consist of threeparts:
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  • Pentose Sugar. In DNA, the sugar is 2'-deoxyribose.
  • Phosphate Group. A single phosphate groupisPO43-.

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What does the 5 and 3 mean in DNA?

The 5' and 3' mean "five prime" and"threeprime", which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA'ssugarbackbone. The 5' carbon has a phosphate group attachedto itand the 3' carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. Thisasymmetrygives a DNA strand a "direction".

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Why DNA is double stranded?

DNA is double-stranded because it helpsitbetter perform its job. To elaborate, DNA is thebasichereditary information of a cell. Composed of fourdifferentnucleotides, the DNA isdouble-stranded.

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Who is credited with explaining the structure of the DNA double helix?

The 3-dimensional double helix structureofDNA, correctly elucidated by James Watson and FrancisCrick.Complementary bases are held together as a pair byhydrogenbonds.

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What is the benefit of DNA having a helical structure?

The structure allows for the DNA tobetightly packed into chromosomes. It also provides anextremelystable backbone with the negatively charged phosphatespointing tothe outside of the molecule. This charge aids in theattachment ofother molecules to the strand ofDNA.

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What does it mean that DNA is antiparallel?

Antiparallel: A term applied to two moleculesthatare side by side but run in opposite directions. The twostrands ofDNA are antiparallel. The head of onestrand is alwayslaid against the tail of the other strandofDNA.

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What two molecules make the uprights?

They showed that alternating deoxyribose andphosphatemolecules form the twisted uprights of theDNAladder. The rungs of the ladder are formed bycomplementarypairs of nitrogen bases — A always paired with Tand G alwayspaired with C.